Laboratorio de Aracnología Facultad de Ciencias UNAM


General instructions. Our biodiversity inventory pages can be searched individually by Inventory or compared through the Comparative Search pages. The selected search option will appear in a new window. The Microscopy methods page describes the techniques used to take these images.

In any search mode select a Family to show the species included. To enter any species pages just click on its name. Click in the thumbnails to access the high resolution images that will pop-up on separate resizable windows. This was done with the purpose of comparing images side by side after organizing them on the desktop.

If you retrieved an individual species page from Google Search, the link found under the species name will redirect you this web page. Then you can search using any mode described above.

IMPORTANT! All web pages have a cache life of ten minutes, if you do not see the updates you are looking for please wait until the old page ask for an update.

Please send your comments and species identifications to this email:

Measuring spider diversity

Collecting all spider species in a relatively large area is impossible, therefore extrapolations and statistical tools are needed to give accuracy to the community parameters analyzed. Applying standardized collecting protocols is crucial to achieve this and also to compare communities between places. Over many years most Arachnologists have used the same collecting protocol with some minor variations. At its core, it makes explicit the collecting effort (1 hour/person) for direct techniques sampling one hectare, but plots of 2,500 m² also have been used.

NOT making explicit the units of effort or using areas less than this minimum introduces error for species/ area extrapolations. Transects are also NOT recommended to use because hundreds would be needed to cover a comparable area. Please follow these two simple rules and your spider species inventory will be more cited in comparisons with similar studies.

Biodiversity Inventory Website Protocol

This protocol objective is to make inventory web sites almost automatically. It standardizes the acquisition of digital images to directly create web pages by combining data from three sources: the image file names, the species folder organization, and a table with taxonomic data for these species or morphospecies.

IMPORTANT we had some problems with the previous versions of BIOINV. Please click on this link "" to download the new version. It includes all scripts, Excel templates, control pages and the User Manual of the new version. This protocol is published and its software is available here, if you use it please cite our paper.

Álvarez-Padilla F. Galán-Sánchez MA. and Salgueiro-Sepúlveda, FJ. 2020. A protocol for documenting spider biodiversity inventories with websites applied to a Mexican Tropical Wet Forest (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Zootaxa. 4722 (3): 241-269.

Tracing a plot with simple tools

A sampling plot of any area can be traced with a compass, a long measuring tape and two people. Set a given orientation in the compass lets say NE. Trace an imaginary line in the compass from 225° to 45° and project it to a land mark where the other person must place the measuring tape in a straight line. For the corners add 90° keeping track the turn orientation to close the square. For this example the other three directions would be 135° to 315°, 45° to 225°, and 315° to 135°. For irregular polygons the job is done with a ruler, a notebook and some knowledge of basic geometry.


We would like to thank Leonardo Sousa Carvalho for his valuable comments and the bugs he fund in BIOINV 1.0. We also would like to thank all the arachnologist that helped with the identification process and recognition of new species. They are mentioned in the respective species page. Special thanks to The George Washington University and The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) for sharing equipment. Funding was provided by UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT projects IN213612 and IN214916, CONACYT-SNI and Facultad de Ciencias UNAM.